G15 PMN Creative First-hand Programming
G15 Intraplates Multiversity has many relevant links: http://intraplates.com/ The Elsketch approach deals with actual work with electronical components in a hobby laboratory. Our engagement in this goes back to before the G15 PMN programming language and platform was fully conceptualized and given the stable form it now has. Note that some of the dated documents in this Stamash Elsketch section, named, here 'reports' (for they are observations and experiments from actual work with electronical components) here and there has a language that somehow may predate the final mature version of the G15 PMN programming language. In addition, the core set of reports of this nature were made before the Elsketch app, for we want the app to help clarify what goes on in the Elsketch studio. Cfr norskesites.org/fic3/fic3inf3.htm for the main #5558888 Elsketch emulation app. THIS G15 PMN APP IS TO BE MADE AFTER THE FCM EXAMPLES IN THE THIRD FOUNDATION APP ARE COMPLETE, AND WILL BE RELEASED IN 2017. The analog radio receiever and transmitter examples, and other such core electronics documented here, are however very well-tested indeed and anyone interested in hobby electronics can spend time with this already before any radio-relevant software in G15 PMN has been completed from our hands. After the release of the G15 PMN Elsketch app, fresh Elsketch work, also with relevance for boolean logic gates and G15 CPU construction work, as well as for robotics control, will unfold here. We are now speaking of the G15 PMN Elsketch developments of the 2020s, where also new apps for higher-level construction will be released. Status of technology development relative to analog radio: the deliciously simple, first-hand analog radio concept, which includes such as medium-wave and short-wave AM, is alive and well. However, short-sighted politicians here and there have tried to save money by giving in to industrial conglomerates that push in the direction of relying more and more on the vulnerable, cluttered, and intensely second-hand chip technology for radio transmission, such as the socalled "DAB" technology ("D" for dummies). Nevertheless, analog radio will never vanish, and when the beauty of analog radio is reborn in people who want to deal more with technology of a first-hand understandable type, then, I predict, there will be more radio transmissions of the analog type again. ELSKETCH: Our notion of improvised, intuitive, first-hand, 'dirt-under-nails' sketching -- both in mind, in terms of programs, and in concrete reality, of supreme electronics devices using only the most elementary electronics items in existence; and doing this without reliance on the whole array of cluttering conventions as for diagrams, without any overuse of formulae, and with a raw instinct for what works. The author of the Elsketch programme (Aristo Tacoma) has dabbled with stuff like this since childhood. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ EDUCATION AND SELF-EDUCATION FOR ARTISTS, DESIGNERS, MODELS, THINKERS IN ANY FIELD, EVERYONE WHO WANTS A DEEPER SENSE OF MEDIATION AND A NOVEL SENSE OF BEAUTY AND ESTHETICS: G15 MULTIVERSITY 'DIRT UNDER NAIL' PROJECTS. Ever seen a bunch of bikini models make their own transistor radio? Not for a Vogue or Sports Illustrated pose, but because of their real, sincere interest in self-education and mindfulness? No? About time! ;) * You want an overview over all Multiversity G15 Elsketch projects? http://www.stamash.com/secs_stamash_educational_centers/elsketch/sitemap/ We coined the concept "ELSKETCH" to incorporate a sense of hobby-like but also professional contact with ELectronics and ELectronics in a sense of both rational and intuitive improvised SKETCHing of various circuits, diagrams or whatever one calls it. Elsketching is a process, while "an elsketch" is an implemented actual piece of electronics, or the representation in the forms of numbers so that the computer can make some sense of it. We have experimented with various forms of the Elsketch project since the programming language PMN G15 Yoga6dorg had one of its earlier names, Lisa Gj2 Fic3, but it is now a real, actual up-and-running activity which has an idealistic educational flavour for anyone anywhere in the world who wants to get the upper hand on electronics with only a couple of dollars to start with for making radios, transmitters, amplifiers and eventually mastering all sorts of things including ALL the elements of a first-hand G15 transistor computer the size of a giant truck, including first-hand logical gates. For the G15 Multiversity: Background works Also part of the Stamash Educational CenterS, SECS Primary Multiverse Noetics, or PMN, is a first-hand programming language built within G15 Yoga6dorg platform. This can also run on its own hardware as an "O.S.", for absolutely everything of it has been designed from scratch with the thought that transistors, capacitors and such neat little things can run it directly. {It has 240 instructions, only some of them require some larger bundles of transistors.} The G15 concept in education takes the stance that more important than merely having 'useful' skills, and more important than merely have surface contact with entirely un-understood boxes of modern technology, an eductation should involve some degree of 'getting dirt on one's nails' with real contact with real building processes of elementary technology and other elementary things in a whole life For general info about PMN G15 Yoga6dorg see www.moscowsites.org/fic3 www.norskesites.org/fic3 In general terms, we might use the following vocabulary: Each Elsketch project constitutes also a report over successfully completed electronics development and implementation work, in a sense a bit of 'neopopperian research', intended to be replicated in an improvised, intuitive, playful way by anybody who likes to educate herself in this way. This report is dated August 11, 2013. For general info about copyright confer the spirit of honoring acknowledgements as found in our www.yoga4d.org/cfdl.txt. As for acquiring standard electronics components try a variety of relevant words including 'electronics' and 'components' as well as such as 'npn' and 'pnp', 'picofarad' and so on at www.yoga6d.org/look.htm or any of the other equivalent mounting-points for the search engine we've made in PMN G15 Yoga6dorg of a mind-stimulating (free from over-helpful-ness but honest and wise and long-term use certainly increases own knowledge and capacity to do many interesting things, all the time!) search engine. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Elsketch: Creating a first transistor radio module -- quality through simplicity: the fiest of good sound through just a bunch of simple components which make up an AM MW radio Images of the full-fledged working AM MW radio that can pick up stations thousands of kilometers away and fill the room with with relatively high-quality talk and music extracted from the luminous aether -- when the stars are up, and weather conditions otherwise right { anything in brackets, soft {} or hard [] -- whether one bracket [ ] or three brackets [[[ .. ]]] is generally an updated info of some sorts, making some things more precise or giving a novel kind of hint, sometimes inserted a long time after the date of the main page containing a report. for instance, at the completion of this page you'll find how to measure on transistors given a simple measurement instruments and how to find out which pin is what pin of the three pins, and this was inserted after the main report at this page was written -- so this is in brackets.} ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Elsketch has a G15 Yoga6dorg side to it: each project can also be studied by a first-hand emulation of it made in the G15 language, by fitting the number-oriented description to the G15 program. [note: the program Elsketch in G15 is being worked on, but we want several projects to be up and flying so that the empirics is far stronger than the emulation in digital terms -- we want the emulations to supplement the real empirics of working with real electronics, and so make no haste to implement this.] ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ WHAT IS "ELSKETCH"? AND WHAT IS A MODULATOR, A CAPACITOR, A COIL, AND A TRANSISTOR, REALLY? ElSketch-ing is our name for first-hand work with sketching new things in electronics, where we work with components or items that are as simple as possible, and with as few premade things as possible. If you take any steel wire, and put some electricity of the battery intensity through it -- say, 12 volt -- you'll find, if you measure it very precisely, that the steel wire heats up just a tiny little bit and it eats off a little bit of that electricity as it heats up. Put the same volt through a bit of coal, such as a burned piece of bread, and, depending on the nature of the coal and how it's fastened to wires, it may lead some of the electricity through it, and heat up a little bit, but it also simply resists electricity, and allows electricity to be modulated in its intensity. So the component that we call 'modulator' (or resistor) is any one such -- measured in Ohms, coal has more ohms than steel -- which doesn't quite let electricity fully through. A particular kind of such a modulator is a signal lamp, which instead of just heat also makes light. Put two large metal plates very near one another, but without at all touching. If you put electricity to them, for a very brief instant -- but a longer instant if the plates are very large -- they do allow electricity to pass through them. After a moment, they won't allow it anymore. Amazingly, they keep on to the electricity -- they have a charge, just like a battery. If you connect wires to the plates to a tiny signal lamp, and the plates are big enough, they might cause the signal lamp to flash up with a light for a brief moment. And after this brief moment, they are again available for re-charge. This is a CAPACITOR, for we're talking here of a capacity to hold electricity. This is measured in FARAD. The smallest ones are used to make radio frequencies, tiny ripples of quick quick flashes of electricity, and these have values in terms of pico-farad. A thousand pico-farad, pf, gives one nano-farad, nf. That's suitable for dealing with audio frequencies, sounds having like merely a thousand or five thousand cycles pr second (a 1000 or 5000 Hertz, or Hz), compared to radio frequencies of such as a one million Hertz, also called 1 MHz, one mega-hertz, or a thousand kilo-hertz). When we want really low frequencies such as fifty hertz to be smoothened out we can go up yet one step, from nano-farad to micro-farad (one thousand nano-farad is one micro-farad (and we always abbreviate micro-farad to mf, the 'm' not to be confused with the 'm' as in mm, milli-meters), and then you can imagine just how nonsensically much one farad is, a measurement unheard of in normal electronics), and put the micro-farad capacitor in there somehow. If the power-supply is buzzing with 50 hertz noise, but it provides rather clear SC, straight current, then it will get straighter still by fitting a suitable capacitor of some micro-farad between the two wires coming from the power-supply. But such capacitors are hard to make without introducing chemicals, at least if they're going to be fairly small. And these chemicals are a bit like the chemicals in batteries -- they get explosive if they get the wrong polarity in quantities. So we must take care to fit such POLARISED capacitors so that the poles are correctly set. In Elsketch, we focus on fresh names to lift new insights into play, which not always were spoken clearly about in what we can call 'twentieth century electronics'. While everybody in the 20th century agreed that the notion of the "negative pole" was a misnaming, since that's a pole overflowing in abundance with electrons, few did anything with it. We rather call that pole for the E pole. The other pole can still sometimes be called a + pole, a positive pole, but it's important to recognise that what it is positive with is a kind of 'hunger for electrons'. It's also important to recognise that all the electronic sketches, when they do work, work by means of what we in supermodel theory also sometimes call q-fields. These q-fields are holistic, they are whole, they are not mechanical push-pull things. We can describe individual items by pushing and pulling, by charging up and charging out, and so on, but once these items work together as a whole, we must understand deeper aspects such as resonance; it's almost like saying: take these machine bits, and fit them together; but when you start up the machine, it tranform from being a machine to being a bit organic. A capacitor that's small lets through frequency currents (that is, electricity that goes back and forth in polarity), but it doesn't let through straight currents (except for that brief instant). It lets through, we might say, FC, but not SC -- this is a vocabulary we use in Elsketch. For when electricity goes back and forth, it picks the electricity we've charged up a capacitor with off it, making it clean and fresh and receptive for new charge. A very large capacitor also only lets through FC, frequency currencies, but it is more roomy, and allows slower FC, such as audio frequency stuff to come through it. Its slowness may also prevent a bit of radio frequency to come through it. Take a copper wire painted with epoxy or such, making it insulated, and wire it around something many times. If you put it beside a capacitor, and it's constructed so that these two fit one another, the copper wire is then able to provide a kind of slowness to the change of polarity that the capacitor would like to do its charge and recharge. While a capacitor filter out any too-low frequencies, such a COIL has the feature that it filters out any too-high frequencies. Coils like capacitors just as high-heeled shoes like girl feet. While it is really easy to make a capacitor of a lot of picofarad, or even nanofarad, only with metal plates -- a variable capacitor in a radio by moving metal plates, insulted from each other but near one another -- once we get up to microfarad, they are more complicated to make, as said above. But we need to go up in farad when we go from high-pitchen quick frequencies of the RF -- radio frequency type -- and over towards audio frequencies, such as are involved in audio amplifiers. Interestingly, it is also easier to make RF coils than to make audio coils. The coils we measure in terms of HENRY. A wire of just some turnings have but pico-henry, and it takes much work to make nano-henry. A good audio amplifier does need even more work, approaching micro-henry with its coils, just as it needs micro-farad with its capacitors. A coil that is also used for radio reception must have in it not only a great deal of fine-tuning relative to the frequency ranges involved, but also we must ensure that it is using metal that invites reception of radio frequencies in the air. Ferrite is a kind of composition involving also particles of iron so that it is rather light-weight while at the same time encouraging the coil to work like a coil with a good many nano-farad, though not so as to lock the coil into a closed field. A coil always makes some magnetism when it has electricity on it. If we want to focus on this magnetism, a core of plain iron or steel is perfect. Electric engines typically have several such magnets-from-coils constantlly pushing and pulling the engine to rotate. But when we want to receive very subtle impulses towards magnetism in the air from radio waves, we don't want the coil to stick to its own magnetic field. We want it to let go of any built-up magnetism quickly, and stay receptive to the radio waves. That's why such things as ferrite comes in. When you have a well-working radio, therefore, keep all strong magnets at a distance from all the components and especially at a distance from the coil. For some metals store magnetism for a good while, and if you put a magnet near coil metal so that you induce magnetism in this metal, the coil may not be as good in picking up radio waves before that magnetism has vanished. A screw-driver might be usefully magnetised, however, so that it can pick up tiny screws fallen deep into an apparatus, by rubbing it one way only against a strong magnet. It will then retain the bulk of the magnetism perhaps for just some hours, or less if that magnetism is then rubbed off against something. So we have looked at modulators ('resistors'), capacitors, and coils. We're almost through with the essential items. The one item we must also have, and which is of key importance, is the transistor. In one way or another, this is a key part of digital computers. When we want to make a first-hand computer using Elsketch technology, -- truly first-hand, like really so that we can visualize how everything works and get to touch each individual transistor -- we must have a truck-load of elsketch modules. But, significantly, we only need modulators, capacitors, coils and transistors as the components. The socalled 'integrated chips' which began to pervade all technological society in the 1980s has that truck in a microscopic scale, and it relies on work with the big, grand, standard items in Elsketch. But when something is done in Elsketch it is UNDERSTOOD, and it can be MAINTAINED. With the chips came the 2nd hand relationship to reality, with the chips can the throw-away attitude to things that didn't work, with the chips -- which, when finished, hide their quantum nature, came the more mechanical and less spiritual worldview that as if the universe is composed only of machines -- what a rediculous point of view! So Elsketch is a key component in any spiritual, artistic, humane education, for it brings together the logical/mechanical with the intuitive/ organic, and transistors are true quantum-like objects, acting, with their crystalline structure, in fields organising themselves nonlocally and in ways going beyond the physics before quantum physics. Transistors can be replaced by other types of things, but transistors is, and will probably remain, the simplest type of component that does just its job. It's main job is to act as a kind of amplifier element. A transistor on its own is a very mild amplifier indeed. Most amplifiers that give loud and high quality sound depends on a whole, big lot of them, and a whole big lot of modulators, coils and capacitors as well, so as to not overstrain any of these mild amplifiers, and so as to enhance core sound and filter off noise sound. Similarly, a computer must also have in it elements to filter off noise fluctuations. This is always a bit unsure process, and for reasons of that unsureness, one can never be totally certain a computer won't suddenly malfunction. One can only lower the risk, by doing clever good work and using high-quality items. But one can plan for having alternative computers stepping in at once if a computer stops working, and yet other computers to do the switching, hoping that not too many of them malfunctions at once. And so on. So before transistors, electron tubes were used: rather as some types of light bulbs, these are glass units where air has been pumped out, and that work best when fairly hot. Electrons can then fly in the vacuum without resistance from the air, from one pole to another, and be regulated by such as grids in the middle. So vacuum tubes, like transistors, never have less than three pins. The transistor type we use here is one that can be used both in radio receivers, radio transmittors, audio amplifiers and computers, and in the Elsketch series of works, we make everything up to a whole G15 Personal Computer by means of transistors. The latter is not something one does manually in a complete sense, but one does bits of it manually, and lets robots make the rest of the computer. But it can then be walked through, and one can put one's fingers on any component, and even repair individual modules -- things not possible when all is put into a couple of chips with tremendous compression. This transistor type, easily available, is called -- and this fits with the 20th century terminology, let's add that! -- BC547C NPN and BC557C PNP. These are just names, nothing to understand about them really. The NPN or PNP are their broad types, the first letter tells us that it's a type that's oriented towards the + pole. These two are among many that are really hyper-general. The only variations are when it comes to pushing the power that can be allowed to pass through a transistor, and as to their behaviour with regard to extreme frequencies, temperatures, and such. So any transistor of such a standard type has what we call a 'middle pin'. Here you apply the input. This, when tending towards just that polarity which it says -- 'P' for 'Plus' when we as in the radio module and transmitter use NPN transistors -- will allow a greater flow of current through the transistor, a current which is otherwise rather completely blocked. It can be just a trickle applied to the middle pin and quite a lot of power can be regulated by slight fluctuations of this trickle. This, however, presupposes that you put fairly much power to the 'collector pin', or C-PIN, and that this has the same polarity as the middle pin; and that you put the opposite polarity to the remaining pin, the 'emitter pin' (rediculous names, I know, but get used to the names as names), which we write here in Elsketch as E-PIN. There is no difference at all between the practical functionality of an NPN and PNP transistor apart from this polarity. If the sketch works well with a PNP transistor, then, by switching polarities on all polar-sensitive things, and switching the input volt polarity also, you can typically change the PNP to NPN and it will work straight away. Let's bear in mind that when we talk about a real-life item out there we are painting a kind of map in our minds of the item out there but the item out there is infinitely richer than any map we paint of it, we might say. And there are entirely different way of using transistors and sometimes it's best to trust it to intuition. A particularly apt example is that when you design an oscillator, you are trying to design something that is going to oscillate maybe for a million times pr second -- that MW radio frequency. So you cannot really try to manually go through each step involved. You must look at it as a whole. And that whole involves a very subtle tuning of the electricity. We may find that when we put a coil and capacitor beside one another and wire them in parallel, we may have an excellent starting-point. But if we simply connect this to a transistor in an obvious way, it may be that the transistor gets over-eager in feeding electricity to the capacitor and so the whole process dwindles in intensity before it pulls off. Let's also note that it may be of value to give a tiny bit power of the opposite polarity that you would expect to the middle pin also -- a little bit, so that there is something it can swing in between, something that helps it to establish a kind of balance point. These words are approximate; it's a question of finding out what gives the best result, also in terms of quality. And it's good to remark that it is usually vital to throw in at least one modulator between the transistor and any power supply -- let's say between C pin and the plus pole, for instance -- this involves shielding the activity of the transistor a little bit from the power supply so that it is possible to pick out some of the electricity variations that the transistor is making before it's swallowed up by the power supply -- battery or 12 volt coming from the a transformator unit. ALTERNATIVE USE OF TRANSISTOR AS WHAT WE CALL "BUFFER": We have given a description in which a transistor is used as an amplifier. In some cases, we have a separate amplifier module but we have too much noise, or potential noise. A case in point is that it is often something like 50Hz associated with most power supplies of 12v; but there are also other forms of noise. A fantastically simple trick -- a crazy one, compared to most 20th century thinking about transistor -- but it works, and it works really well at that -- is to switch the PNP/NPN type of transistor WITHOUT switching the polarity as one would expect -- but in such cases one will also remove any modulator between the middle pin and the collector, and maybe instead insert a modulator between emitter pin and its connection to one of the poles. Experiments with getting the highest quality sound on the radio showed that buffer transistor is what we needed here (we make a quality audio amplifer in another Elsketch project that can be connected to this radio). A transformator (also called a 'transformer', but really it's all about transformation, and the word is too general, despite its 20th century use in electronics in such a way) is two coils, or more, entwined on the same magnetic metal material. The metal is used to give electricity from one coil to the next. Interestingly, the quantity of turnings allows one to alter the voltage by this. By having FC -- frequency currents -- of some 50 Hertz or so of a higher voltage than what can be used in such first-hand electronics, the wires, usually copper wires, used to transport electricity between houses work more effectively than if lower volt is used and if SC -- straight current -- is used. So we have much volt and FC, and we want few volts and SC, and a transformator box equipped with a bunch of other items in addition to the transformator will do the job. There are some items which are derivatives of the main group, such as 'diods' -- half a transistor, fundamentally -- employed in such boxes -- and fuses, which are but modulators tuned to only work if not too much electricity -- measured in AMPERE when we speak quantities of flow, rather than the 'volt speed' of the flow -- rush through them -- and more such, used in various modules. But by focussing on modulators, capacitors, coils and transistors, we have the general understanding we need to conquer any bit of electronics in our own minds. So a transistor, made of germanium or silicium or the like, is made out of a particular crystalline like of metals that are not nearly as easy-going with regard to electricity as steel, tin or copper -- the holy triunity of electrical metals -- and these crystalline like metals have more q-field properties than other metals, we might say. The q-field is sensitive to its surroundings, and more so if the metal is destilled and purified a great deal. The silicium or germanium can, once it is very very pure, be strongly modified by extremely light additions of some critical other chemicals, belonging to a group of perhaps not so common chemicals such as boron and antimony. It only takes a little bit for the q-field to change. So this change allows us to classify the germanium (or the silicium) as P-type or N-type. Once we are able by exact chemical processes tuned very precisely in an industrial manner to fit two P-type bits tightly together with one N-type bit, or vice versa for an NPN transistor, and also, in a precision way, connect wires to each of the bits, we get the transistor. This is admitted a lot more complex than to burn a bit of bread and put wires to it so as to get a modulator. But it doesn't seem like it can get simpler than this. After all, it is still elements of nature, although very purified and modified with great exactness by a slight addition of the little modifying chemical, and they must be fitted in a laboratory using very precise temperatures and what not. But we're not talking of a microscopic scale here. We're talking of processes that after all a fairly modest chemical laboratory can carry through. Indeed, in our sister educational process to Elsketch, named Atomlite, we deal with light chemical processes including these so as to actually make transistors. WHAT IS "TINNING"? I guess the right word for it really is "solder" and "soldering tool" and such, when we melt a thread of tin containing also a little lead and use it to fasten such as a very thin steel or copper wire to another, but in Elsketch -- our educational approach to relate to the fundamental items or components of electronics in a first-hand, experimentative manner -- we form of the noun "tin" a verb, and say "to tin". Instead of "soldering", we say "tinning". This is a more pleasant word, and it is instantly recognisable and understandable. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ THE NORMAL PRECAUTIONS: TINNING SAFELY Tie your hair back if it can get in the way of the tinner and be ready to cover as much as possible of all your skin so as to protect against the heat of melted tin (four times as hot as boiling water, and it contains poisonous lead as well), and the heat also of the tinner. If you get enthusiastic and wild about an elsketch project, don't continue with it before you're calm, because no project is so important it's worth blemishing your prestine beach body. Each Elsketch experiment as described here is well-tested, but it is part of the first-hand nature of working with the units of electronics that there's always a sense of personal discovery about both the process and the result, even if the result can be predicted in general terms. For instance, in the bewildering array of radio stations you can pick up, weather conditions of all sorts matter in the extreme, and also minute differences in how you arrange the antenna, and, not untypically, how you hold the radio components when you tune the radio, for you yourself influence the reception and strongly so when you touch the metal part of some of the components in this low-voltage radio. Don't work when it's lightening and thunder, as it may change the voltage level and on some occasions be damaging. Before you begin, you should take precautions against the one enduring challenge with tinning: that of melted tin sometimes splashing around. What you don't want is to get any of that splashing tin drops on your skin -- and you absolutely don't want to get it on your face, and you must take infinite caution not to get it in your eyes. So before enthusiasm grips you with electronics -- as it will, if you stick to it, you must respect the fact that melted tin has several hundred degrees of celcius and can cause instant burn marks. Unless you're a proficient tinner, and perhaps even then, use a face mask. The responsibility is your own. The clue, in general, is to recognise that you must only tin in a case where you're not applying pressure which bends the wires or pins you tin. If you are applying pressure, then it usually means that sometimes can suddenly slip and the wires can rebound and throw off their cargo of tin to the air. You must be sure the wires are RESTING on the tin position, not pushed there. So you take the extra little time involved to bend the wires prior to the use of the tinning tool -- so that they are naturally shaped so as not to suddenly rebound during or right after the tinning process. You also have on clothes that cover the skin, and you are situated in general so that the electronics work happen on a table that's considerably lower than you; for tin with lead is heavy and usually will fall, and there's a protection in being higher up. You also simply don't do it if in a rush. You've got to give it time or avoid doing it. Components can be reused up to a point. Take pains to use intuition to sense the degree of coherence about components before using them. You want to make highly holistic, highly coherent things, out of highly coherent components. If something is on the verge to breaking down, your intuition can usually tell you if you listen to it; and avoid these components, so the lack of coherence doesn't spread. Don't insist on over-reuse of components. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ INTRODUCTION TO THE RADIO What we will here make: we'll make a first radio module. In this particular case, we'll use a premade medium wave ferrite coil and a premade medium wave variable-capacitor and also a premade audio amplifier with its own loadspeaker or headphones, so that not too many things have to be done in the first experiment. We'll make the radio module by adding some modulators (our word for what is also called 'resistors'), a couple of transistors, and some capacitors to the ferrite coil and the variable capacitors, and connect these to the audio amplifier. We'll use a lot of rather thin steel wire as antenna, in addition to the antenna effect of the ferrite coil, and also add some metal near the ferrite coil, putting it beside it, around it and near it, so as to enhance the capacity of the radio. We can do this in daylight, when the sun is up; but it is the nature of MW, medium wave radio frequency that it can tune into myriads of transmissions especially the first forty-five minutes before the night is at its darkest, and and for one and a half hour especially -- longer at times. The Sun is its own radio station and it is a very, very powerful one, swaying all other stations. So it's primarely when the Sun is at the other side of the planet you've the best chance to get this radio to work. During daytime, the radio won't give any other than a very radio-like noise when tuned into any faraway station, -- which is pleasant and perhaps can be called 'white noise' (for it may evenly spread across frequencies). During the construction of the radio, perhaps in sunlight, you can tell by the noise that you might have got a radio. Then you wait until the stars are up and the nightsky is otherwise its most magnificent black: and when the radio is put together right, and with the very crucial ferrite coil exactly right -- don't experiment by making a coil by experimentative means before you're sure the radio does indeed work like a real radio with the premade ferrite coil -- it can open up a world of listening, music and talking. Now before I put together these components -- of size, and in a way, chosen intuitively but with reasoning applied along the way, and after a great deal of experimentation before this, and some fine-tuning aftert his -- I had imagined that, with luck, one will be able to barely pick up a station or two, and with extreme luck be able to pick up what is said on one of them, at least for some seconds where one strains one's ears to the outmost. I imagined how one could lie about this, for fun, and to the frustration of people who will try the experiment. "Go make this fantastic radio! It has good sensitivity, it's selectivity is good, and we might say that it is high fidelity. Real studio sound you know." I especially liked that bit about "we might say", -- it's a kind of humility thrown in, just before the total absurdity of the phrase, "high fidelity". I was then positively shocked by realizing that when the stars set in for real, and the darkest patch of the night set in, I found myself listening to one radio station after another -- music and talk -- coming in loud and clear, and sometimes with a quality that made me wonder whether one ever needs any better quality than this on a radio. The little radio module with two transistors, once powered by a ferrite core surrounded by some extra bits of metals, and with an antenna thrown around at the floor tinned to the correct wire, turned out to be a fiest of electronics, and the notion of 'high fidelity' was at times coming to mind, not as a joke this time, although HIFI is normally more correctly applied to recorings. This is an Amplitude Modulation or AM radio of the Medium Wave range (not the more phoney kind of quasi-radio of the 'frequency modulation' or FM kind of very high frequency that is typically going not much further than loud sounds themselves) -- and we're talking listening in to transmissions strongly coming from stations that are thousands of kilometers away. The MW radio frequencies have properties that allow the atmosphere and ground to alternately reflect these waves and propel them across the planet. Very high frequencies do tend to require -- like light -- an absence of barrier, and a straight line from transmitter station to receiver station. Once the radio module is made using pre-made amplifier, pre-made variable capacitor, and pre-made ferrite coil, the doors are open for making each of the pre-made things for oneself. Once one has a working radio module, one can try to replace one of the pre-made things with a self-made thing. If it doesn't work, one knows where one must work further. This is a step-by-step process which makes huge sense in all Elsketch work. This also reduces the reliance on any highly complicated and involved measurement technology for such as coils. A radio works or it doesn't work. If it does work with one coil that's prefabricated, and you can yourself make a coil that makes it work just as well, more or less, then you have presumably made a coil of roughly equal strength in Henry. But to make a Henry-measurement tool, although possible, involves reliance on pretty involved machinery that is not necessary to have a sense of the charm of Elsketch electronics. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ PREPARING THE STEEL GRID FOR EACH ELSKETCH PROJECT After a great deal of experimentation with just what easily constructed foundation general hobby electronics does need, we reached the notion of the relaxed steel grid, of squarish size somewhat smaller than a typical piece of paper. This is a pleasant structure, and it is supposed to be constructed consciously appreciating the fine features of NOT having straight normal corners and straight lines -- consult the q-field discussion as part of the super-model theory in a design context (archive section page 10 of the Eco-nomy column). Create a steel grid to mount the components on, with wires with plastic insulation that you fit in suitable places with a simple knot or two. (See picture of completed radio.) These wires should be of steel or copper and very thin indeed, to allow easy tinning with a low-watt (watt equals volt times ampere, indicates such as heat very roughly) tinner. But it is important that these wires contain only one metal thread each, rather than such as many thin copper wires: for one metal thread can be bent and kept in that bent position, which is important for tinning, and in dealing with many tinning operations, we don't want tiny and nearly invisible threads to possibly cause shortcuts here and there. Use thin copper-threads woven together as one wire where that is technically important only (they conduce electricity superbly e.g. in a high quality audio context), and normally, for elsketch projects, use wires that are not composed of smaller threads in any way. The steel grid you make by taking ca 1mm steel wire the length of which can fit roughly around a sheet of paper, and you knit it in one end after cutting it. (Have a strong liquid soap ready if you touch the cut wire so that a finger bleeds, to prevent infection, and don't get any tin, which contains lead, and lead is toxic, near any wound; wash your hands real well after each tinning session keep fingers outside the reach of food and also don't touch sensitive areas of your body such as mouth before you've strongly washed hands.) Use a tool to make five (or maybe six) indents in the steelwire at each of the four sides, so that each indent at one side matches an indent on the opposite side. At each dent, put a steel wire there, twirling it around itself e.g. by use of tool and stretch it over to the corresponding indent on the other side. This gives you a grid, it needn't look stringent at all. Then at about every second spot (where a steelwire going horisontally cross with a steel wire going vertically), tie a wire with colored insulation with one or two knots, with varying sizes but always ten centimeters or more distance from the knot to the end of the wire. Spend time with tinner to remove insulation -- heat it up by the side of the tinner, keeping tinner tip clean -- and then pull off the insulation somehow (most should do it by tool). Clean tinner tip regularly by gently rubbing a steel tool on its tip then giving it fresh tin. Apply fresh tin from the thread of tin to each un-insulated bit of wire. The capacity of these wires to lift the components above the steel grid, and to keep them in relatively stable distance from each other, and to also keep the tinned bits in stable distance from each other, makes this an ideal playground for Elsketch projects of any kind. When we use the word 'module' here, we don't refer to a prefabricated sleezy box which is closed, but to such a deliciously first-hand product, open to inspection and maintenance. And the stability will be enhanced by applying suitable bits of tape for extra insulation, after the tinnings have been checked to be stable and good. The module can then go into production of professional equipment where the size considerations are so that they allow such a grid to be present without being pushed around by other things in the environment. For large Elsketch projects such as the G15 computer, one will mount the steelgrids in arrangements which allows them to be over one another without touching, and with availability to repair etc. The advantage of the steel grid over the 20th century notion of sticking holes through an insulated 'board' with copper pathways underneath in a premade connection is that it is far more open to mild and strong changes, to control to experimentation. It is also less flammable than all comparable approaches. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Terminology: when we say 'use these components in parallel', it usually refers to two items each with two pins, so that you can tin pin 1 on both to each other, and pin 2 on both to each other. Which is pin 1 and which is pin 2 doesn't usually matter at all -- for such as modulators, capacitors. For coils is may matter in some cases as for the direction of their magnetic fields and so also it may slightly influence how a coil performs as antenna in a radio. For capacitors, parallel connection in general means adding their farad strength to one another. For coils, in order to add strength one would usually put them after one another, in what is called 'series connection'. For modulators, they are added in strength also when put in series connection. If you put two modulators in parallel, the resulting ohm is reduced, and there's a formula for that. Take one divided at the ohm for one of the modulators. Take one divided at the ohm for the other of the modulators. Add these two new numbers. Then take one divided on this sum, and up comes the magical answer. The reason modulators behave so peculiar when in parallel -- and, for complicated elsketch designs, what is parallel is indeed a matter of perception, not always that obvious -- and anything at all can be seen in the light of their modulation as ohm -- is that the whole elsketch behaves as q-field, not as a mechanical unit of push-pull things which can be analysed merely as local parts pushing and pulling on each other. In other words, elsketch is a matter of organic perception. A machine, when switched on, is not merely a machine, it also has something organic about it -- a whole field of coherence. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ The project: Making your AM MW radio. Get these standard components: one premade variable capacitor for MW radio frequency [say, one that is variable from a dozen of picofarad and up to maybe as much as 200 picofarad or so, if you have to select from a catalogue], one premade ferrite coil tested to work for sure with MW radio frequencies [see notes elsewhere here for how, or cfr sitemap as to how to wind your own ferrite from noise-reducting ferrite chunks that one easily can acquire in any well-equipped hifi or computer cable or hobby electronics store], one normal simple mono sound amplifier with its own power supply and a small loudspeaker or headphones, and with two simple wires sticking out from it that can be tinned to the radio module, and these capacitors: one polarised big one, 10 mf (mf in Elsketch context means micro-farad, while in such a case as we would like to say 'milli-farad' -- a thousand times as much -- we would spell it out [let's spell out that if you have a tiny roughly made power supply, make it 1000 mf (one millifarad) or even more to cut away some buzzing 50/60hz noise from it; but note that all big capacitors must be short-circuited by e.g. a screwdriver if you want to assume that there's little electricity around in an elsketch that has these capacitors there; if you open a cathode ray tv the big capacitors may hold tens of thousands of volt and believe me, I know how it feels to touch one of them before you have shortcircuited them with a screwdriver and it is definitely not a recommendable experience, ordinarily speaking; the most low-noise power supplies are those that are ripped from high quality audio amplifiers e.g. a quality synthesizers with loadspeakers has a separate power supply box] two medium-big ones, 46.9 nf -- and these modulators (resistors): a medium light modulator, 2.2 k -- mentally tag it 'buffer power supply' a light modulator, 1 k -- tag it 'oscillator power supply' a light modulator, also 1 k -- tag it 'oscillator middle pin modulator' a big modulator, 100 k -- tag it 'oscillator e pin modulator' -- and these equal transistors: one BC547C NPN -- mentally tag it 'oscillator transistor' that can handle 45 volt or more one BC557C PNP -- mentally tag it 'buffer transistor' that can handle 45 volt or more (see note above about how a BUFFER transistor is having the opposite type PNP instead of NPN in this case -- while admitting of much the same connections; this is to improve quality of radio sound) Be sure to note that when these transistors are lying with the flat side of them up, and the pins towards you, the rightmost pin is the E pin, the middle pin is the M pin, and the leftmost pin is the C pin. [helpful hints: search on datasheet or datasheets or PNP or NPN or such in the yoga6d.org/look.htm search engine and click around until you find one that is user-friendly enough to give you the pdf description of the transistor you've got, they are a bit messy some of the datasheets online; if you use an inexpensive digital meter giving its 'voltage drop in the forward direction' when connected to two pins of a transistor, one of which must be the middle pin, then there will usually be very slightly less voltage drop in a typical silicon PNP or NPN transistor between collector and middle pin than between emitter and middle pin, while no measurement is given between emitter and collector in isolation; when you have a black and red connector to the instrument, the red being positive, then connect the red one to the 'P' and the black one to the 'N' and the measurements should come out nicely. for comments on digital meters -- which are helpful in moderation but not if they overwhelm your lab -- you may see also a note at the completion of the 'Winding your own ferrite coil for the AM MW radio' document, cfr the link to the sitemap at the completion of this page.] Be ready to change transistors if they have been subjected to too much volt or have been used for too long, they are usually the most sensitive bits in any elsketch electronics. If any of the items have pins that are too near each other for tinning, then taking enormous care, hold the pins in their middle and bend just a tiny little bit so that the bending happens in the middle of the pins, but not where the pins are fitted on the item itself (for that might loosen their connection to the main item). -- as well as some three meters of ca 1mm extra steel wire to be used as antenna -- and some things or blocks of metal not very much bigger than the ferrite coil, that you can put beside it perhaps usually not touching, and experiment with getting different receptive conditions out of the radio and also modify the wavelength it receives on somewhat. This metal should not be very magnetic. It can be copper, blocks of tin, or loose ferrite cores that you have still to put wire on. You can also experiment with bits of iron or steel, just don't put any strong magnet near radio ferrite or it may have reduced capacity to do its work for a while. Be sure also to get good quality 12 volt, SC (straight currency, no frequency). If it carries too much noise in it, fetch the biggest mf polarised capacitor you can get hold of and put the + of the capacitor to the + wire from the power supply -- be sure to get it right -- and the other pole of the capacitor is connected to the other pole of the power supply. A battery is of course of superb quality but you want plenty of hours to experiment without having to shift battery all the time. Then it should work! Cease working for some hours if it's roaring lightening and thunder, we want stable volt and we want to preserve the transistors. Mount the stuff you've collected like this: Connect the power supply to two wires on one side of the grid. Connect the variable capacitor to two wires on the side of the grid nearest you, for you will adjust it much. Connect the coil to two wires usually on the opposite side of the grid. And then why not connect the amplifier wires to the remaining of the four side of the grid, to two wires there. We can right now pick the mf polarised big capacitor and study it so we locate which polarity goes where. Its electron-side, in 20th century marked by minus signs, obviously goes to the electron-side or 'minus' side of the power supply incoming wire. And the plus side of this capacitor goes to the plus wire. Triple-check you got it right. (Fitting it wrongly destroys it; fitting it to 220 volt 50 Hz frequency current makes it explode and as it contains metal, it isn't something you want while working -- so take care with polarised capacitors.) Turn on the amplifier and turn up the volume a little bit. Tap each of the two wires with your fingers. If there's a little noise it will usually get less noise when you touch what is called the 'ground' wire of the amplifier, and it will become a clear sound or a tap or buzz when you touch the other wire. Take now the ground wire and connect straight ahead to the E pole of the power supply. Take the other wire that goes to the amplifier and tin to the C pin of what we informally and mentally call it buffer transistor. [see note at the completion for how to put in an extra capacitor here when needed] Now locate the middle pin of the buffer transistor. Tin this to the two nf capacitors. The two nf capacitors are to be used in parallel (side-by-side -- see the paragraph 'terminology' just above). Let the nf capacitors, in parallel, stand between the M pin of the buffer transistor and the C pin of the oscillator transistor. The oscillator transistor is NPN. Don't try to apply too simplistic maps (nor such over-elaborate mechanistically inclined blah-blah theories they had of the stuff in the 20th century, in profusion) for understanding oscillators. They have to be tuned, intuitively designed, not just by reason but also by reason. This radio works like hell! And we have a transmitter to match! Buffer power suppy and oscillator power supply: these are two modulators. Fit them between the C pin on the respective transistors and the plus pole of the power supply. Take the big modulator and fit it between the M pin of the oscillator transistor and the E pin of the oscillator transistor. Now get the suspension with the coil and variable capacitor going. The coil and variable capacitor are going to be in parallel. This done, put one side of them straight to the C pin of the oscillator transitor. Put the other side to the modulator mentally tagged 'oscillator middle pin', and the other side of this modulator goes indeed to the M pin of the oscillator transistor. Let's also now fit the antenna. The antenna doesn't have to be other than lying about on the floor, maybe, and it certainly can be twisted, it doesn't have to be straight -- but experiment a little with it when you're doing the final adjustments to maximalise this fantastic super 'high-fidelity' ;) radio. What you do is to fit this antenna to a normal bit of wire with plastic insulation -- using the tinner a longer time and holding the steel wire with a tool since it gets very hot very fast -- and then this bit of wire is tinned to the wire that comes from the variable capacitor (and coil) and that then goes to the modulator and through that modulator the connection is next to the middle pin of the first transistor. The other pin of the variable capacitor (and coil) goes to the C pin of the oscillator transistor. The antenna will then partake in light vibrations set up by the oscillator and it will help fetch from the air the station most near in oscillation to just that. It will also of course transmit a little tiny bit current but near the middle pin of the transistor it's not so much it should cause any great deal of disturbance for any equipment. Now pay attention to the fact that the ferrite coil can also directly receive especially if the transmission stations are fairly near. You will find that you can tune into stations also by slight movements of metals very near the coil, not just by varying the capacitor. By adding much metal, all the stations move and in some cases the capacitor may be suddenly able to tune into some frequencies beyond its reach earlier on. By varying coil size and capacitor size, we can go a little up into short wave, socalled, and a little towards longer waves with less frequencies called long wave; so we have LW -- MW -- SW. LW can work a little better in sunlight if radio station is just kilometers away, SW can work also a little better in sunlight given great transmission power combined with hyper-exact tuning of reception antenna and equipment for the short-waves, for these waves are more high-powered and penetrate mountains with ease and do not require reflection in the atmosphere like MW does. But MW is the coziest place, with the easiest high-quality AM sounds not requiring over-exactness of antenna, just requiring that it's near the actual maximum of midnight. Is the reception instantaneous? Radio waves usually travel at about three hundred thousand kilometers pr second. It means that if the transmission is one thousand kilometers away, it did take some time but much much less than a second. But since there are phenomena of reflection you may find that, sometimes, given some weather conditions, and some environmental conditions, waves go much longer than that and then come back, a little bit delayed, causing a shift in the original waves and sometimes a general shift in the exact position of the station on the radio. In any case, when the Sun isn't competing with the radio stations, you've got a superb radio elsketch here when you've tinned it carefully like we said. When done with the tinning, go over: is every pin of every component fitted to a wire that goes to something and not nothing? If something is forgotten in the description, check with the technical Elsketch program description, link to it in the Elsketch site index connected to this description / report. ..AND GETTING IT ALL GOING Arrange metal objects on around the ferrite coil if u like. Put ca three meters of steel wire in your working room so that it doesn't touch any other electrical equipment, nor any metal, but it doesn't have to be straight, and fit it as antenna. [see hints at the completion of the page for still more possibilities] Wait until the night is at its darkest, the sun on the other side of the planet, and weather conditions suitable. Switch off as much as you can switch off as to other electrical equipment in the room -- especially things that might oscillate on its own -- and keep as much distance as possible to whatever equipment that must be left going. A computer has fast oscillations and even some lamps may have oscillations, and these may block reception pretty much completely. With AM MW radio reception, every little bit in the room suddenly may matter enormously -- including how the cables from the power supply lie about. All and anything may act as an antenna, and some types of things may dampen the radio signals too much, so clear the room up pretty much. Unplug even the tinner. Then turn it on -- but always keep a safe distance when switching on any electronical equipment, even low-voltage like 12 volt, as there are always possibilities that some components might go up in fire, and a real but rare possibility at this volt that a component might explode. The responsibility to protect yourself and shield yourself from any elsketch project is your own. So you connect the 12 volt power supply, amplifier put on much, and -- if need be -- review the connections and repair them until it is entirely correct. If in doubt whether the transistor has survived any misplaced wires, replace them. Experiment on getting better reception of some stations by very gently touching the antenna or the E pole of the power supply with a finger. GET IT TO WORK REAL WELL: As I'm writing this, I just listened to a sending taking place over 500 km away, clear, crisp, with fair tonality. And then I started the Mini-TX as it is not very far from listening in on a recording direct from the music box -- with a tiny bit of garbled sound bits, and some buzzing because I use a cheap power supply for the radio, and not yet a perfect one for the transmitter. The radio consistently works best with a big bunch of copper lying on top of the ferrite coil, and tonight I found that I had to double and triple the use of steel wires for antenna -- forking it into two several-meter long wires hanged up on the wall for the long-distance reception. On other occasions I have used the radio in a place where the receptivity is better due to housewalls etc, -- and/or weather, and where the idea of having two ferrites touching, one of which is the coil, was the right one. But this is all due to the use of the buffer transistor, the PNP. If this is switched to amplification, we don't get high fidelity even remotely, but rather a shrieking kind of radio that amplifies all and every noise. However, it is possible to handle it by extra measures, and one of the measures is then leave the ferrite to its own devices, put up a separate antenna connected to the E pole, and put in a tiny capacitor between the two separate antennas. Let me also say that it's not untypical that in the first few days after I've given a report of a successfully working approach, I find some mild or occasionally radical improvement and chuck it in. I'm glad to say that the Mini-TX got improved perhaps by a hundred times after its first version -- so much so that it almost seemed to blast the radios nearby it out of existence. With that improvement, the notion of providing an extra HF amplifier for it seemed rediculous -- and it still does. (The improvement is now part of the Mini-TX Elsketch project -- the wiring was updated, the component list was updated, although the description of the transmitter and its name is fairly much as in the first version -- but read it with what I just said in mind.) When it works, enjoy it! Spend time with it. Look forward to all your next Elsketch projects, -- why not the Mini-TX! Or,s one of the obvious next Elsketch projects could be too look at the premade elements here -- one at a time -- and get them constructed more manually. [[[practical helpful hints in the present context (note that the practical hints inserted in brackets, and other things inserted in brackets as well as of course the links on top and at bottom of each report may have a newer date than the bulk of the text of the report): four hints here -- first about a possible improvement or two, then about coils, then about an approach to indicate which pin is what pin used throughout, and on how to determine whether a transistor is NPN or PNP, and fourthly about how to use 9v batteries and headphones instead of 12v power supply and separate audio amplifier module. *1* ground -- as we call it, perhaps because the soil when wet is ripe with electrons and so has an affinity with the E-pole of the power supply -- may need to be 'equalized', and it can also help picking up stations. to equalize it, throw in a really small capacitor between antenna and ground, such as 27pf. as an alternative, on a radio, you can wet a finger and touch the E-pole of the battery and the radio will 'click on' if it get unbalanced in the accumulation of the electrons -- this is much more likely to happen when you do it by batteries instead of power supply -- transformer, or transformator (as we like to call it), to wall outlet of higher voltage. also, connect some meters of steel wire to the E-pole and keep it totally separate from the antenna; it can possibly be a bit heavier metal parts there also, more like a grid also, perhaps. be aware of the 27pf trick, the equalizer capacitor, as useful also for other devices with antenna; this you should work out yourself, it isn't necessarily pointed out each place. it helps recreate a balance with the electrons (and the plus pole, the 'hunger particles', hungry for electrons) which the variable capacitor may not always be able to deal with on its own -- anyhow, it's a trick that works. on occasions, it's a necessity. *2* the prefabricated variable capacitor and the prefabricated ferrite coil we intend to provide in the Elsketch kit sets at some time in the future. For now, the best bet -- unless you have an extraordinarily well-equipped supplier -- the best bet is to get hold of a transistor AM radio with MW of the type that is certainly much, much bigger than pocket size, and cannibalize this radio for those two components exactly. This will usually require a bit of patience, clipping around a bit roughly, so that you get a bit of the printboard underneath the components with you. Add to that the confusion of getting such as six pins or more from what is supposedly a simple variable capacitor. So you'll have to work out which two pins are most to the point -- probably one that reflects the middle axis, and one that is on the edges. The ferrite coil may offer similar challenges. Check with an ohm-meter that the ferrite coil doesn't have many ohm, while the capacitor ought to, like any capacitor, not conduct plain straight current at all. Variable capacitors are easier to get in an electronics store than suitably wired AM MW ferrite coils. If you have to, go straight to making your own ferrite coil -- see sitemap beneath. *3* which pin is what pin? the E pole, the electron pole, the one often indicated in 20th century terminology by a minus or dash sign (-) is the most abundant pole. the complementary pole, the + pole, has a q-field which seeks out electrons, it is a 'hunger for electrons' pole, and so we have two forces pulsing through the resonances of each elsketch. the electron pole you can find that we often mark E and be sure to note that the letter E does contain a dash in a sense, so there's an affinity to the 20th century terminology of using a dash to symbolize the E pole. now here's a trick that we sometimes use: when we can vary the size of the pins -- such as from a power supply -- let the longest one be the one most abundant with electrons, namely the E or - pole. right? the LONGEST PIN IS THE E PIN, is an approach we can take, but keep the presence of mind with you, for it is easy to clip it different and you must detect that in case. So if you have two equal size pins and you don't want to clip any one of them, you might want to bend the + pole zig-zag at least once so that it gets shorter. on transistors, it is probably best to look to the type of pin -- middle pin, emitter pin, collector pin, or M, E and C. for some transistors, when the flat size is up, the sequence is C, then M, then E, and this is the approach taken with the data for the elsketch -- pin 1 is C, pin 2 is M and pin 3 is E. But transistors can have other shapes, circular and what not. So then, when we find out which pin is what, we can let E be the most straight pin, C be the most bent pin, and M be bent half-way between E and C. with a measurement instrument that has a capacity to measure diods (which is NP or PN, in other words more or less two-thirds of NPN or NPN, but a transistor isn't symmetrically made, in order to distinguish between emitter and collector, so a more subtle structure than a diod, generally speaking), you will get a reading that is called 'voltage drop'. This is small in one direction, but can be given a number; while in the other direction there is so little electricity flowing that there is no number for it on a simple instrument. at an NPN transistor, put the red + measurement stick to the P and the other pin to either emitter or collector and then usually the collector will have very very slightly less voltage drop than the emitter. reverse the position of the sticks, and nothing shows at all. put the sticks between emitter and collector, again nothing shows at all. at a PNP transistor you start with the black E or - stick to the middle pin, and put the red stick to the emitter or the collector. the clue to remember this is red is P for positive as for transistors, whether NPN or PNP, when it comes to measuring this thingy called voltage drop. so this gives you a possibility of working out with some but not total certainty whether any given transistor of an ordinary type is NPN or PNP, and which pin is what pin. then bend the collector pin the most, the emitter pin you let be straight, and the middle pin you bend half-way between the two. note that some high-power transistors get hot when you put them to use and they have to be screwed very tight to a chunk of metal e.g. with ribbons so when air blows through it, it cools; for neither diods nor transistors can stand temperatures very much higher than some 50 or 60 degrees. *4* let's be clear that this needs an amplifier to produce any sound but the most meagre whisper in even a headphone. the buffer transistor, as said above, doesn't amplify but shield, in a particular way, so that we get a minimum of noise. But if you want to switch this into a more headphone friendly setup, switch the NPN transistor with a PNP transistor, and call it not buffer but mini-amp (mini-amplifier), and fit ca a 50k ohm modulator between its middle pin and collector and ca a 100k ohm modulator between its middle pin and emitter. it will make noises and squeak but at least it will give output -- in this situation, the ferrite shouldn't touch any metal near it, but it can still have metal near it. better is to put an additional amplifier module in (separate project before headphones). still, there are more hints in this point -- a very tiny (27pf) capacitor to be fitted between antenna and ground, and a particular 'ground antenna' will improve reception. So: 9v batteries and headphones. You can take many types of headphones and tear open and deinsulate carefully so that you access just one of the headphones, then put them through a large capacitor -- it can be another of those polarised 10mf capacitor -- but only use them if you don't have such as a nonpolarised 1mf available -- and do please use care, be sure that they have volt capacity many times of what you put onto them when you use them a bit quickly like this. you put it between the main output of the 1st radio module and the headphone main input wire -- positive side towards the headphone input wire, the other headphone wire goes to ground. since we haven't put any much amplifier transistors to the 1st radio module it might not any much headphone sound at all unless you create an extra antenna-like wire, many meters preferably, and put it to the ground -- the E pole of the power supply (or touch it, if you have correct humidity in your fingers to emulate ground). Then you can put two 9v batteries one after another in series, that is to say, + pole of one battery to E pole of the next, and you use the two remaining poles, one from each battery, which gives you twice the nine volt. that's gonna be necessary unless you want to add an amplifier module such as described in another project. as long as we deal with 45v or more transistors, that won't destroy them. be sure to notice that the 9 volt batteries will be quickly used up so you should add an on-off mechanism as well. measure with voltmeter to be triple-sure you are not short-circuiting the batteries in any way and that you do get out around 18 volt before you connect it, and that the batteries are connected with the right polarity. this however is so much more fun if you throw in some amplifier transistors. if you do have a 12v battery rechargable available it's probably more suitable than running around buying 9v batteries all the time; but then you use only one 12v battery, don't do twice 12v battery for that gets you more than half the height of the maximum volt capacity of the transistors. there are peaks of volt twice what you give it so we have to say that some 12-15v power supply is best. by the way, with batteries you probably don't need to have the polarised capacitor in the beginning. when you do this, for sure do the 27pf trick in *1* in this note.]]] ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ GENERAL LAW NOTICE Note that you must yourself take responsibility to look up the laws and regulations governing what type of transmittors and what transmissions and at what time it is legal to employ these and other electronic components, some of which may have strong influence on near-by electronic activity of some kind. These texts concern themselves with the joy of first-hand electronics in an educational sense. It is your own responsibility to match this educational process with the laws of your society. The fundamental tenet is of course that whatever you make, shouldn't disrupt society in any fashion at all. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ * SITEMAP: OVERVIEW OVER ALL ELSKETCH PROJECTS CURRENTLY LISTED: http://www.stamash.com/secs_stamash_educational_centers/elsketch/sitemap/ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________